Blog

Posts for tag: @healthygutmd

By Dr. Marvin Singh, MD
October 14, 2018
Category: Microbiome
Tags: @healthygutmd  

What’s In Your Gut Virome?

The gut microbiome is a hot topic these days. It seems like everywhere you turn someone is talking about gut health and bacteria. But is it all about bacteria? What is the gut microbiome? Let me break it down for you.

The gut microbiome is basically the ecosystem of trillions of microorganisms that live inside of our intestinal tract, mainly in the colon. Some have estimated that there are about 100 trillion microorganisms that live in the gastrointestinal tract. By the way, this is just the gut we are talking about; there are even more organisms on our skin, in our mouths, and in many other parts of our bodies. These little bugs make up an intricate network and ecosystem and are largely responsible for our health (or lack thereof). There are ten times more microorganisms in our digestive tract than there are human cells on our body. The DNA from these organisms outnumbers our human DNA by a factor of 100 to 1. This is definitely a force to take seriously!

We often think about the gut microbiome in terms of bacteria. In fact, it is predominantly bacteria. However, there are also fungi, yeasts, parasites (in some cases), and viruses. It’s the viruses I want to spend some time talking about. We are probably going to discover in the years to come that certain viruses alter the ecology of the gut microbiome and this can lead to certain conditions. For example, a recent study suggested that infection with the Reovirus could trigger an inflammatory response to certain foods and lead to the development of celiac disease (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28386004). Another study suggested that infection with Rotavirus could lead to the development of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29736406). Even a decade ago, in the literature, researchers described the Epstein-Barr virus (the virus that causes mono) as being associated with autoimmune diseases like Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Sjogren’s syndrome (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19028369).

What some of us biohackers are discovering is that there are viruses that are living in the gut. For the most part, these happen to be plant viruses. For example, some people may have a cucumber mosaic virus living in their gut. This is a virus that was first discovered in 1934 and it was found to infect cucumbers and a variety of other plants. We probably don’t think too much about plant viruses when we are eating vegetables but maybe we should. Humans make a good go-between for a plant virus and when we ingest them they could potentially change the ecology in the gut microbiome before they depart the gastrointestinal tract. Although we don’t know too much about all these different viruses yet, it is generally felt that the more viruses you have, the more issues with health you may have as well. Some bacteria in the gut can inhibit viral infections while other bacteria can promote viral infections, so there is definitely an interaction there (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373533/). Remember, 70% of the immune system exists in the gut. When you take a snapshot of your gut microbiome and get it tested, it is hard to know if the viruses that are being detected are related to food recently eaten or persistent infections. Either way, it could be a sign that you are not eating the best quality vegetables. While it is unclear if the viruses are a part of the picture when it comes to food sensitivities, it makes sense to try to avoid a particular plant if you know you are infected with a virus that infects that plant.

What is even more interesting are the viruses that infect the bacteria. These are called bacteriophages. One of the more common ones is referred to as crAssphage or cross-assembly phage (I love the name, don’t you?). This is a common phage in the gut, actually. It is felt to predict infection to the family Bacteroidetes. While the function of this virus in human health is not really clear, it does make one wonder about its role in human health if it can infect certain kinds of bacteria. It also makes one wonder about particular drug or therapy targets in certain diseases or conditions that involve a virus at the root of its cause.

In the meantime, here are a few things you can do to help protect your gut from viruses:

  1. Make sure your produce is organic and comes from a reliable source. If the vegetable looks infected or just doesn’t look right, think twice before eating it
  2. If you know you have a particular plant virus living in your gut, consider taking a break from that plant at least for a while.
  3. Work towards eating plenty of colorful fruits and vegetables that come from a reliable source so that you can build the diversity of your gut microbiome.
  4. Reduce stress, exercise, avoid toxins, have fun in life, avoid sugars and processed foods; basically, do all the things that help build a strong resilient gut microbiome

We don’t yet have enough information about the gut virome but it is clear that there are viruses that live in the gut as well. It is fascinating how a plant virus can settle down in the gut microbiome. It is even more fascinating to wonder about what it is actually doing. In some cases, these viruses may be doing nothing. However, in other cases, it is possible they could be shifting the balance of the microbiome and contributing to significant health effects. While I wouldn’t lose too much sleep over this, I would definitely try to be more aware that it exists and perhaps pay more attention to the quality of plants we are eating on a regular basis. 

By Dr. Marvin Singh, MD
October 01, 2018
Category: Microbiome
Tags: @healthygutmd  

My Top 5 Tips on How to Detox Using Your Gut Microbiome

Detoxing is a big topic these days. Everyone wants to know how to detox. But what does it really mean to detox? Well, it means getting rid of the bad stuff and putting in the good stuff. It’s not entirely that simple but that is the basic concept to keep in mind. There are a few ways to help get the bad stuff out, besides not being exposed to the bad stuff. Three of the main ways that someone can flush the bad stuff out is via the digestive tract, urinary tract, and sweat. Of these three systems, the digestive tract is one of the most powerful. Why? Because the digestive tract is home to the gut microbiome, the ecosystem of trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi that live together with us, in sickness and in health.

The gut microbiome has been shown to have the ability to degrade chemicals and toxins such as pesticides (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29072801). In humans, chemicals such as plastics, pesticides, fertilizers, electronic waste, and food additives that are endocrine disrupting chemicals are felt to be associated with the growing rate of diabetes and obesity. An endocrine disrupting chemicals is basically a chemical or substance that disrupts the normal hormone balance in your body and throws things off. As a result, you suffer negative health effects such as diabetes, obesity, and a whole number of other conditions. We know that the gut microbiome, metabolizes these toxins (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28571659). This is such an important topic that I wrote a book chapter in the textbook of Integrative Environmental Medicine (https://global.oup.com/academic/product/integrative-environmental-medicine-9780190490911?cc=us&lang=en&) on this very topic: how the gut microbiome is involved and influenced by diet and environmental toxins.

Why should you care about all this? Well, what the gut is exposed to is very important. This is because when the gut microbiome gets imbalanced, various different diseases and conditions can occur such as Crohn’s Disease or Inflammatory Bowel Disease (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27876802). When the detox capability of the gut microbiome is on point, then maybe we are ok. However, when the detox capability of the gut microbiome is off, as a result of an imbalance, then we may suffer negative health effects. It’s like having a well-oiled machine that doesn’t work as well as it could because the parts used to build that machine are lower quality. If our gut microbiome is bombarded with toxins, we may reduce the quality of our detoxification systems and we may alter the composition of the ecosystem that could subsequently leave us vulnerable to other changes, effects, and conditions.

So, what should we do? How can we maximize our gut’s detoxification capabilities? Here are my top 5 tips:

  1. It makes the most sense to try to reduce and avoid toxins. There won’t be as much stress on the system if the load is not as large. This means using clean cosmetic products, cleaning supplies, cooking tools, and most importantly it means eating clean.
  2. Eat plants. Plants have a lot of nutritional benefit, chemicals, vitamins, and anti-oxidants. This will help us in our never ending detoxification endeavors. Some of my favorites are dandelion greens, celery, swiss chard, cilantro, broccoli, green tea, oolong tea, turmeric, ginger, and berries.
  3. Eat clean foods. This means avoiding processed and packaged foods. These foods generally contain food chemicals that are meant to improve shelf life and make the product “look nice” for as long as possible. While these chemicals often accomplish the goal of the company, it exposes our microbiome to extra unnecessary chemicals.
  4. Avoid unnecessary antibiotics. Antibiotics can be life-saving. They should be used but in the appropriate setting. Often, antibiotics are over-prescribed and being given for viral infections or other self-limited conditions that do not require antibiotics. What happens is that we also kill the good bacteria when we take a broad spectrum antibiotic and some of these effects can be long lasting on our inner ecosystem.
  5. Ensure regular bowel habits. If we are not going #2 on a regular basis, we impair the gut’s detoxification abilities. Some of the bacteria can take a detoxified chemical and make it a toxin again if it sits around too long. We want to make sure we have at least one or two regular, soft, formed bowel movements every day. The saying “better out than in” never made more sense! If you eat cleaner, increase your fiber intake, drink plenty of water, and optimize your lifestyle choices, you will find that the bowel habits just come along as part of the process. For those of you who need a bit of a boost, that’s okay too; my only suggestion would be to work with someone who is well versed in digestive conditions to optimize your choices in things you can use. Sometimes a prebiotic and probiotic supplement can help; speaking to your health care provider about which ones may be best for you is important.

 

We live in a toxic world. That’s just a matter of fact. Everywhere we turn or look, I would bet you could find toxins. However, this is not something to fear. We have to live our lives in this modern world. So, the point is not to be scared of everything. The point is to learn how to maximize that detoxifying machine in our digestive tract and help it do the job it was meant to do, the job it wants to do. If we build a resilient and diverse gut microbiome with all the arsenal it needs to fight off the bad toxins, we will be ready (as best as we can) to handle the common threats that come into our everyday lives. 

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
September 23, 2018
Category: Uncategorized
Tags: @healthygutmd  

My top 3 mind healing herbs

Wouldn’t it be great if nature made some plants that could calm our nerves without making us feel like we were on drugs? Something to help regulate our stress while we learn how to meditate? Or just something to make it not so bad that your two-year-old broke another glass bowl again?

The truth is that we are able to self-regulate our feelings or responses to those feelings. It takes a lot of practice and it can be hard for some people, especially those who have never been introduced to mindfulness practice before. But don’t give up hope! Nature did indeed make some herbs that can help us get through the tough times and perhaps give us the opportunity to learn and practice mindfulness.

Adaptogens are herbs that help the body adapt to stress. It is important to regulate and control stress because it is the chronic low-grade chronic stress that can lead to hormone imbalance and inflammation. Stress is a risk factor for a number of diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25178904). So, yes, reducing your stress can heal not only your mind but also your entire body! I’ve outlined my top 3 adaptogens and why I like them.

  1. Ashwagandha (Indian Ginseng). Ashwagandha is one of my all-time favorites. It is calming and relaxing and if you have troubles going to sleep it could be something to consider taking at bed time. Not only does this, nature’s valium, help you relax and reduce the stress response, it also has a bunch of other great health benefits. A recent study suggested that it has anti-tumor effect in colon cancer (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29966656). Another recent study suggested that an extract from the leaves of ashwagandha can not only reduce brain inflammation but also reduce some of the behavioral problems that can occur as a result of that brain inflammation (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29846872). This is part of the beauty of using natural alternatives; there can tend to be a number of other health benefits that come along with these things as a side effect.

 

  1. Rhodiola (Rhodiola Rosea). Rhodiola is another favorite. This herb has been used for a number of different things including anxiety, fatigue, and depression. Some people take it for increased energy and strength. I find that Rhodiola could be more uplifting as compared to ashwagandha. There are certain companies that actually make a blend of several different adaptogens so you get the benefit of a several different things. These can also be taken separately. Since Rhodiola can be a little more energy boosting, I sometimes suggest taking it in the morning. One study suggested that those who took rhodiola had reduced levels of self-reported anxiety, stress, anger, confusion, and depression just after two weeks (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26502953). That’s pretty impressive if you ask me!

 

  1. Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus). Siberian ginseng has been used for ages as an adaptogen. It has been felt to help increase resistance to stress. It could be helpful in those experiencing fatigue or decreased energy, particularly from chronic disease. It has been demonstrated to have anti-oxidant capabilities as well and perhaps this is why it is a good choice in those with chronic illness (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19051347). Not only does Siberian ginseng have immune stimulant properties, it is also felt that it might potentially have anti-tumor activity as well (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107240). One of the important things to remember with this one is that there are a lot of different kinds of ginseng. Others, like Panax ginseng, may also be considered adaptogens. Just be careful to read the labels and get a pure version of what you are intending to get.

 

There you have it! My top 3 adaptogens. These are great tools to carry in your toolbox. Herbs can carry a lot of power within them. We need to also remember that herbs are drugs too. Be sure to check on potential side effects as they may pertain to you and ensure that there are no drug-drug or herb-drug side effects that might affect you before you take anything new, just as you would with any other medication. If used properly, these can be great adjuncts to your stress-reducing regimen!

 

 

The information contained in this article and on www.thehealthygutmd.com is informational and not meant to be medical advice or replace the advice of a physician. Please consult your doctor with regards to your medical conditions and management. 

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
September 16, 2018
Category: Nutrition
Tags: @healthygutmd  

Dr. Marv’s Gut Healing Smoothie

Smoothies are all the rage these days it seems. For good reason, though. Smoothies are one way to get a ton of nutrients into your body in a way that can be absolutely delicious and good for your gut. As an integrative gastroenterologist, people often ask me what sort of smoothie they can make that will be gut healing. Well, here is one of the many recipes I personally enjoy.

Organic Green tea (4 cups, cooled)

Half a bag of organic frozen blueberries

Half a bag of organic frozen cherries

4 generous handfuls of organic spinach

1 tablespoon of organic coconut oil

1-2 tablespoons of organic ground flax seed (or chia seed)

1 pinch of organic cinnamon

Optional: 1 organic banana (if you really need it sweeter)

Optional: 1 spoon of collagen protein powder

**Serves 4.

After I have all my ingredients in, I blend it all up in my Vitamix. What you get in the end is a wonderful and refreshing treat that will also give your DNA and microbiome a whole lot of love!

Here is a breakdown of some of the things that these ingredients can do for you:

  1. Green Tea is loaded with antioxidants. It can help with weight loss, reduces inflammation, and can improve brain function. EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) is the main type of compound we often talk about that is found in green tea that is loaded with these health benefits. I often recommend drinking 2-3 cups a day in order to get the desired benefit. The smoothie is one great way to get a head start!
  2. Blueberries are probably one of my absolute favorites! They are a great source of fiber, potassium, folate, vitamin C, Vitamin B6, phytonutrients, and antioxidants.
  3. Cherries are a great source of antioxidants and they are also packed with anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. Cherries can help with post-exercise pain and also can help promote better sleep hygiene.
  4. Coconut oil gives a nice flavor the smoothies. It is a source of good fat. There is data supporting its benefit in brain health, cholesterol management, reduction of inflammation, and improved immune functioning. Coconut oil also contains lauric acid which we know has anti-bacterial properties and can reduce bad yeast like candida.
  5. Spinach is one of my favorite greens! I try to eat it every day. It is a great source of folate, vitamin K, iron, calcium, and a number of other vitamins and minerals. Your microbiome will love you for eating this!
  6. Flax and chia seeds are a great added fiber source to a smoothie. Fiber can act as a prebiotic to help the good bacteria in your gut flourish. This is also one way to get a dose of Omega 3s first thing in the morning with your smoothie! You can enjoy your delicious smoothie and know that you are improving your cholesterol at the same time!
  7. Cinnamon is one of my special tricks. I personally enjoy the flavor but make sure not to put too much in the smoothie because the flavor could be a bit strong if you did. Cinnamon has antibacterial properties, can aid in fat burning, and reduce bloating. It is loaded with anti-oxidants and has anti-inflammatory properties. It can also improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood sugar.
  8. Banana is something I use to help sweeten it up if you feel like you need something else. I would rather you use a banana than some alternative sugar source. Banana has vitamins and minerals such as potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium, iron, folate, among many others. If you get the banana a bit towards the greener side that is probably better for you and may serve as more of a prebiotic for your gut.
  9. Collagen protein powder is another great thing you could consider adding in for that extra boost. I use collage protein powder with people who are concerned about leaky gut, inflammation, arthritis, skin and bone health, among several others. This is definitely something that can make your gut healing smoothie even more powerful!

When you drink this smoothie, potential side effects could include euphoria, increased attention, a boost of energy, and a happy gut microbiome! I hope you all enjoy it!

Cheers!

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
September 09, 2018
Category: Longevity
Tags: @healthygutmd  

4 Simple Ways to Regain Control of Your Health

Do you sometimes feel like you have no control over your health? Like you are in some downward spiral and nothing seems to work or help the problems you are going through?  You are definitely not alone!  There are so many people who are going through the same thing and have the same feelings. I often get asked about what someone can do to help regain control of the of their health. So, I decided to put together a simple jump start list to help you get started!

While there are a lot of moving parts to achieving optimal wellness, there are a few core principles that should always be at the forefront of your mind. Here they are!

  1. Sleep. Sleep is very important to our health, more than we give it credit for. Poor sleep can affect your memory, appetite, metabolism, mood, and behavior. Chronic sleep problems can result in changes in the gut microbiome which may be an underlying factor that sits at the core of chronic disease in general (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27739530). Yes, not sleeping the right amount can make you overweight! The Journal of the American Heart Association published a study stating that inadequate sleep (either too much or too little) can give you an increased risk of death from any cause and cardiovascular events; they suggested we all aim for a target of 7 hours of sleep per night (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28889101).  
  2. Nutrition. This probably goes without saying. We all know that nutrition is key to optimal wellness. Did you know, though, that what you eat can influence the composition of the gut microbiome and how the various bacteria that live in our gut actually works? (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4303825/). This is a key concept because if we want to try to reverse chronic disease, one of the most important things to think about is what kind of fuel we are feeding our engines. Are you giving Diesel fuel to a body that needs Premium? By Diesel fuel I mean sugar, processed foods and meats, excessive alcohol, vegetable oils, trans-fats, fast foods, sodas, candies, and anything that is not “real food.” By “real food” and “Premium” I mean lots of plants and especially leafy greens, berries, nuts, seeds, healthy fats, cruciferous vegetables, and sources of Omega 3s. No matter what sort of diet you follow, these should be a key component of your nutritional plan. Try to keep things organic and non-GMO and don’t be afraid to try new things! It’s the variety of foods that is also important, not just the foods themselves. You can eat a broccoli diet everyday but just because we all know that broccoli is healthy for you does not mean that your diet is actually healthy.  
  3. Stress Reduction. This may be one of the single most important elements of health and wellness. We are all busy, tired, and overworked. However, if we can find some time in the day to be still and enjoy the silence we will be doing our bodies a ton of good. I’m not talking about sitting and meditating for an hour a day. If you have the time to do that, then that is great. But if you start by giving yourself 5 minutes a few times a day you will start to see that it is highly beneficial. It would be nice to work up to 20 minutes twice a day but you have to start somewhere. Stress reduction techniques don’t have to be complicated. I’m not asking you to find a quiet spot in your office during lunch time so that you can do some downward dog poses. Start by just breathing and appreciating that you are here, you are alive, and life is good. While you do your breathing exercises, think about a few things that you are thankful for, whether it be the cup of coffee you had this morning or the fact that someone held the elevator for you when you got to work. Then think about how you give some of that good energy back to the world. We are, after all, connected to each other. Meditation can improve cell health, regulation of stress response, your immune system, and how your genes work. It can also reduce cortisol levels, inflammation levels, heart rate, triglycerides, and a number of other things (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28863392). Can you think of a better drug that can do all these things?
  4. Have fun. You have to enjoy life. If we don’t enjoy life now, while we are living it, it will be over before we know it. Human beings are social creatures. We need that social connection. We thrive on our relationships. Having fun and doing things you enjoy with your friends, family, colleagues, or even strangers can have significant health benefit as well. Dan Beuttner wrote a fantastic book called “The Blue Zones of Happiness” and he outlines that one of the key concepts to attaining happiness is cultivating social interconnectedness and spending your money more on experiences rather than material objects (Buettner D. The Blue Zones of Happiness: Lessons from the world's happiest people. 2017). Go out and have some fun! You don’t have to do it with friends or anyone else, but it is always nice when you can share a great experience with someone. Your genes and your gut microbes will thank you for the dose of fun and excitement!

Yes, you need to exercise. And yes, you need to avoid toxins. There are a lot of things that need to be done to optimize your health. However, you can’t do it all at once so don’t worry about being perfect straight out of the gate. Take your time. Lifestyle changes can take a while to get down pat. You have to start somewhere. These 4 points include some elements of lifestyle that are often overlooked and under- appreciated. Starting to work on some of these things will help you push forward and allow you the opportunity to work on some of the other things. There is no race to the finish line here. You’ll get there. You just need to start!

Cheers to your (gut) health!

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
September 03, 2018
Category: Microbiome
Tags: @healthygutmd  

My Top 3 Choices For Treating Heartburn Naturally

As an Integrative Gastroenterologist, heartburn or acid reflux is one of the most common topics of discussion. There are all kinds of news reports that acid reflux medications like PPIs (Proton Pump Inhibitors) can cause anything from kidney failure to dementia. Is there any truth to this? Is there anything else that can be done? Well, yes, there is definitely something that can be done. And there are definitely some associations with some of these conditions.

Acid reflux and heartburn are basically the same thing; we use the term interchangeably. It basically means that stomach acid and bile can flow up from the stomach to the esophagus (food pipe). This can be a really uncomfortable feeling and can cause burning under the chest. The traditional go to medications have been things like TUMS or Zantac (ranitidine). Now that several proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are over the counter, these have become much more readily used although they are still, and have always been, very widely prescribed. A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) reduces the production of stomach acid. They help us feel better, so we take them. End of story? Not exactly…..

We need the acid in our stomach. We were born to produce acid in our stomach so that we can digest and process the food we eat. So, what happens when you do something to counter that effect? Well, there have been a whole host of health effects noted or found to be associated with use of these PPI medications. These include: B12 deficiency, osteoporosis, kidney dysfunction, dementia, low magnesium levels, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), increased risk of getting a stomach bug, and increased risk of a potentially significant diarrheal infection from Clostridium difficile. There have been reports of low magnesium induced low parathyroid function  (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26069375). While there is no definitive consensus on the role of PPIs in dementia, there is some information to raise suspicion that PPIs could play a role in the development of dementia, perhaps as a result of drug-drug interactions and/or effects on electrochemical gradients in neurons, among other possibilities (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5883984/). Risk of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease is also something well described. I have personally seen patients develop kidney failure and no other reason could be determined besides the use of a PPI. It is well established that an allergic kidney injury called acute interstitial nephritis can occur. Although we need more research to definitively establish that kidney failure and chronic kidney disease can result from use of PPIs, there are enough reports demonstrating association that should raise our eyebrows (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29668562).

The literature and reports go on and on. I could probably write a book on it! The point, though, is that these medications may have a role in management of some things but they were not truly meant to be taken for long periods of time. However, many of us do take them for long periods of time. The problem is that we are now learning about things that could happen that we didn’t anticipate would happen. What we are likely doing is manipulating our gut microbiome. The gut microbiome is the ecosystem of over 100 trillion bacteria, viruses, and fungi that live inside of our gastrointestinal tracts. We know that they play a role in many chronic diseases. When we chronically reduce the acid in our stomach, which is there for a purpose, and also which is there as a line of defense for our GI tract, then we leave the doors wide open for all kinds of other bacteria to get into the digestive tract. This can lead to an imbalance in the ecosystem which could potentially be a set up for all of these things that we are discussing here. That’s my theory. And it is certainly plausible and worth consideration.

So, what do we do? Suffer? Absolutely not! While nobody would argue that you avoid a PPI if you are in the hospital with a life threatening GI bleed from an ulcer, we certainly do not need to take these medications for a lifetime, outside of potentially reducing risk of Barrett’s esophagus (a precancerous change in the lining in the esophagus) from progressing to esophageal cancer and a few other special circumstances.

Here are a few initial tips:

  1. See if there are any medications you are taking that could be correlated with your reflux symptoms. Perhaps there could be an alternative if you identify something.
  2. Keep a food log or get food sensitivity testing to see if there are any foods that are triggers for you (it is not always tomato sauce or spicy foods; it could be bread!).
  3. Stop smoking
  4. Reduce alcohol consumption
  5. Don’t eat 2-3 hours before lying flat
  6. Avoid heavy, fatty meals (you should be doing this anyway!)
  7. Don’t over-eat (you shouldn’t be doing this anyway!)
  8. Make sure you talk to your doctor; it is possible you may need an upper endoscopy (EGD) or other evaluation to evaluate the esophagus and upper GI tract, especially if there are concerning symptoms like difficulty swallowing, pain with swallowing, and/or weight loss.

Lifestyle interventions are excellent ways to reduce acid reflux. Losing weight, eating healthier, exercising, modifying your habits and routine can all be great ways to improve your symptoms. Remember, your symptoms are probably happening for a reason. I have a few favorite natural treatments that I use to help control symptoms while working on the above. Make sure you consult a doctor who understands how to use these natural alternatives when trying to taper or wean off your PPI. Here are my top 3 natural alternatives for acid reflux treatment.

  1. DGL (Deglycyrrhizinated licorice). This is a mainstay in my practice. It comes in a variety of forms. Many people like the chewable DGL tablets but I am not so fond of the fillers and sugars that are in some of those formulations. I tend to prefer a pure powdered DGL. We want to make sure you don’t take a pure licorice for long period of time because doing that may have some important health consequences; however, taking DGL is different and safer than taking regular licorice. As always, be sure to discuss this with your doctor and make sure there are no interactions with other things you could be taking.
  2. Ginger. This is another favorite. Ginger has many health benefits. It can help reduce inflammation, improve arthritis symptoms, and fight certain infections. I love it as a natural treatment for nausea. It also works as a prokinetic which means it helps move things forward. It can help with stomach emptying, bloating, and constipation. So, it is a great adjunctive therapy for acid reflux.
  3. Slippery elm. This is another natural therapy that I use as an adjunct to the other therapies. It is particularly good for those that have upper throat and esophageal symptoms. It acts as a natural cooling blanket and helps coat the esophagus. I tend to prefer the lozenge form for minor esophageal symptoms.

While there may be a lack of definitive evidence correlating acid reflux medications with chronic health problems and diseases, there is definitely an ever-growing body of evidence hinting that there could be an association with PPIs and these conditions. My take on all this is that if there is no underlying major problem that could justify use of PPIs (most of the time there is not), we should do everything we can to minimize and eliminate their use and replace them with more natural therapies and lifestyle changes. This is what is best for us in the short term and in the long term!

 

 

The information contained in this article and on www.thehealthygutmd.com is informational and not meant to be medical advice or replace the advice of a physician. Please consult your doctor with regards to your medical conditions and management.

 

 

 

 

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
August 17, 2018
Category: Nutrition
Tags: @healthygutmd  

The Magic of Tea: How to heal your gut and boost your genetic potential with a delicious drink

If you are not much of a tea drinker, hopefully this article will make you think twice about it. Tea has been a popular beverage for ages and rightfully so! I drink tea often and I suggest it to all of my patients. Teas can have gut healing, anti-inflammatory, immune balancing, digestion boosting capabilities. It’s like magic!

Here are my top 7 tea recommendations:

  1. Green Tea (I especially like Jasmine Green tea but it’s nice to switch it up and try different flavors from time to time). Green tea owes its magical powers to its bioactive molecules such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate. This superfood has been associated with health benefits in those with obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and even cancer (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24915354).
  2. Oolong tea. This is another anti-inflammatory tea that has great polyphenols and can help with weight loss, inflammatory conditions, obesity, and diabetes (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25031332).
  3. Tulsi (Holy basil) tea. Holy basil has numerous health benefits from improved oral care and to relief from stress. One of the most exciting areas of research has been in how it can help improve memory and cognition. This magical tea may have brain-protecting properties! (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25031332).
  4. Chamomile tea. This is an oldie but goodie. I often use and recommend chamomile tea. Just make sure you don’t have an allergy to this and any related plants such as daisy and ragweed. Chamomile soothes the digestive tract, reduces stress, promotes sleep, and can boost your immune system. I love it in my patients with Irritable bowel syndrome, especially if they have anxiety as well. This magical tea is packed full of health promoting phenolic compounds, flavonoids, quercetin, and a number of other chemicals. It can help relax your bowel spasms and potentially lower your cholesterol at the same time! (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16628544).
  5. Lemon Balm tea. This is another favorite. A friend of mine described feeling like they were getting a spa treatment while drinking this tea; that’s how relaxed they were. I like it for those with anxiety, sleep disorders, and indigestion. It’s a great way to wind down a long stressful day. There is even science behind the claim that it has anti-stress effects (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25360512). I guess my friend wasn’t too far off the mark!
  6. Ginger tea. Ginger is one of my favorites! It is great for nausea, heartburn, bloating, constipation, gastroparesis, inflammation, arthritis, and a whole host of other things. For those of you who don’t like to take pills, ginger tea is another great way to get in that dose of ginger and some of its health benefits. Ginger has even been used in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29614764). I would advise anyone using ginger or other herbs to make sure to consult with your doctor before trying anything to make sure the dose and quality of the product you are using is appropriate.
  7. Peppermint tea. This can be a refreshing and cooling beverage. Try it chilled! Peppermint is a great one for bowel spasms and those with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, perhaps more particularly with those who have diarrhea predominance (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389791). My kids love peppermint tea; it’s a refreshing way to cool them off after playing in the sun outside and preparing them for a gut healing snack such as carrots and cucumbers. The main thing to be aware of with peppermint is that it can make acid reflux or heartburn worse. So, for those of you with heartburn, peppermint tea may not be the best option for you, but don’t worry because you have many other choices to pick from!

If you are not a tea drinker or you never thought of drinking tea, try to switch it up a bit and experiment! Food really is medicine. Teas can be one of the greatest ways to get a nice dose of medicine that will make your mind and body happy! Just remember to source your tea from good, clean, reliable companies and try to stick with organic and loose leaf options whenever possible.

Cheers!

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
August 12, 2018
Category: Nutrition
Tags: @healthygutmd  

The Secret to Self-Empowerment

To become an Integrative Gastroenterologist, I had to spend 4 years in college, then 4 years in medical school, then 3 years doing an Internal Medicine internship and residency, followed by 3 years of a Gastroenterology fellowship. Then, when I thought I was done learning, I enrolled myself in a 2-year fellowship at the University of Arizona’s Center for Integrative Medicine which was founded by Dr. Andrew Weil. At that point, you would think I would be done, right? Well, not exactly. What I learned from the whole process of formal education is that learning doesn’t stop on graduation day. I found myself with more questions than ever.

I had to figure out how to get those questions answered a few years ago. At that time, I was an actively practicing full-time gastroenterologist who would be on call at nights, rounding in the hospital, and seeing patients in the office. At home, I have a wife and two little kids who I also want to spend time with when I’m not working. One day when I was driving to a meeting and I was stuck in traffic, I thought to myself, “man, what a drag; sitting here is such a waste of time.” I would always listen to music when I driving, and it was relaxing; but sometimes I just felt like I needed something else. That’s when the light bulb went off in my head….audiobooks! Yes, audiobooks! This was one way for me to learn about some of the questions I still had and use the time I had in the car more effectively. This was a big transition for me because I always read books. In the end, however, it doesn’t matter if you read or listen to the book…it’s the same book….and what is cool is that many of these books are actually read by the author which kind of makes it even more entertaining.

Wow, what a change it made in my life. In just under two years I read over 100 books! I got hooked and never turned back. After the first several months I was learning so much and sometimes found myself wanting to go run an errand just so I could listen to the next chapter of a book! What happened by reading all these books? Well, I was able to refine the solid knowledge base that I got from my formal education and add the extra layers I was looking for. Not only did this give me a sense of self-empowerment, it gave my patients the same because I was able to convey that knowledge and encouragement to them. I totally changed my life, health, and overall wellbeing personally through this change of mind frame in how to learn. Since I was able to read and learn more at a rapid pace, I was able to apply the knowledge I was getting to my own life. And that is when the magic happened. I started losing weight, feeling happier and more energetic, and I had a new way of looking at life. Yes, just from audiobooks!

I thought I would share with everyone my top 5 audiobooks. These are excellent choices to start your own journey of knowledge and self-empowerment with (in no particular order).

  1. The Code of the Extraordinary Mind by Vishen Lakhiani. This is an amazing eye-opening book that will help you understand how to look at things in life and get to the point where nothing can bother you.
  2. Mindsight by Dr. Daniel Siegel. Anything that Dr. Siegel writes is something you should read. This book was one of the first books of his that I read. It teaches you about how our minds work and how this can affect our health, lives, and sense of wellbeing.
  3. The Book of Joy by Douglas Abrams. This is mandatory reading for all human beings. This is a fantastic book that was written based on a series of discussions and conversations that His Holiness The Dalai Lama and Archbishop Desmond Tutu had. It will entirely change your perspective on life and what true happiness really means.
  4. The Telomere Effect by Drs. Elissa Epel and Elizabeth Blackburn. This book is fantastic and easy to read. Dr. Blackburn was awarded the Nobel Prize for her groundbreaking research on telomeres, which are the caps at the end of our chromosomes. Read this book and learn how to live a longer life free from disease!
  5. Food: What the Heck Should I eat? By Dr. Mark Hyman. This is a great book, breaking down the basics of health and nutrition in a super understandable manner. It will help you understand the science behind why we should and should not eat certain foods and help put you on a path towards revamping your own health.

Wow…making this top 5 list was actually really hard. There are so many awesome books that I have encountered and read. This by no means is a comprehensive list. However, these books are a great place to start. I encourage you all to read, read, and then read some more. Read about different topics. Read about things you always wanted to learn about but never had the chance to. Learn about subjects that you never even heard of. Just get the audiobook and pop it in your car and listen. Your life will change. You may not even know how it will change when you start doing it, but if you keep doing it, the change will be apparent. What you will find is that you have a newfound sense of confidence and wisdom. Human beings are very intelligent beings; we can learn an immense amount of knowledge from each other. It is great to read the research and literature that is published in peer-reviewed journals. It is also great to read about what people think and hear different viewpoints and philosophies. In fact, the better written books reference research and the literature so you get a dose of both. Then you will end up combining your own knowledge with what you are reading and develop your own opinions and viewpoints. When this happens, you will have achieved that sense of self-empowerment and it will only make you want to read and learn more and teach others! What a fantastic thing!

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
August 05, 2018
Category: Microbiome
Tags: @healthygutmd  

Five probiotic foods your kids will love (and thank you for later)

Everywhere you look these days it seems like there is some advertisement for probiotics or probiotic foods. A probiotic is a live microorganism that can have health benefits. The marketplace can make things challenging to figure out what is best with all the choices we have out there these days. We know that our adult gut microbiomes (the ecosystem of trillions of bacteria that live within our digestive tracts) are fully developed somewhere between 2 and 3 years of age and that there are a number of different things that can influence the gut microbiome of a child. These things can include the mode of delivery (c-section versus vaginal delivery), duration of pregnancy (term vs. pre-term), antibiotics, environmental exposures, among many others (https://ukm.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/gut-microbiota-in-early-life-and-its-influence-on-health-and-dise). Don’t fret! There is definitely hope! I’ve put together a list of my top 5 probiotic foods that you and your kids can enjoy regularly. This way your whole family can heal their gut together!

  1. Kefir. Kefir is basically a cultured dairy product. Although, there are numerous amounts of non-dairy kefir products available these days (like water kefir or coconut kefir). Just be wary of the sugar content in some of these products because it may not be worth the extra probiotics if it means you are going to get 25 grams of sugar with it! Kefir has a whole host of health benefits. Some of them include improved cholesterol metabolism, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, help with speed of wound healing, and improvements in asthma and allergy (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199969). I can’t think of very many medicines that can do all of those things, can you? Kefir makes a good snack especially when you are on the go and if you want to go to the next level, you can make your kids a smoothie with kefir as the base and pump them full of other great antioxidants and phytonutrients at the same time! Their brains and microbiomes will definitely thank you!
  2. Fermented Pickles. My kids love pickles. The fermented ones may take some getting used to but they do make a delicious side note to a healthy meal. Make sure you get truly fermented pickles. If it isn’t refrigerated, that’s one clue that you are about to pick up junk food, not a fermented pickle. A recent study showed that three unique strains of a bacteria called Bacillus from a fermented pickle showed good potential as a probiotic. These probiotics showed protective effects against bad bacteria (pathogens) and also had anti-oxidant activity (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29729063). I bet you never thought you could boost your kids’ immune system with a pickle, did you?
  3. Cultured ghee. Everything is better with butter isn’t it? Seriously, ghee is a form of butter that has great health benefits. When it is grass fed and organic, it is packed with even more nutrients. When you get a cultured product, you have the added bonus of a probiotic food that your gut will welcome! We know that grass fed butter has a higher Omega 3 content and it is higher in vitamin K2 which is great for the bone health of your growing children. Additionally, there is a beneficial fat called CLA or conjugated linoleic acid in grass fed butter; this healthy fat can help boost immunity and may have anti-inflammatory effects. In fact, some types of CLA have been suggested to show anticarcinogenic (or anti-cancer), antiobese, and antidiabetic properties (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25434907). Mix that with some good bacteria and have a recipe for wellness! For those who may be concerned about dairy sensitivity or allergy, you may want to consider if this food is really for you, but keep in mind that ghee is a casein and whey free product and you may tolerate it unless you are extremely sensitive since very pure ghee is around 99% pure butter oil.
  4. Sauerkraut. This is another great one. It is pretty easy to make at home too. My kids love it. Since the name sauerkraut may not be the most appealing to a kid, we usually call it “shredded pickles” and since they love pickles, it’s almost a no brainer that they would like this one too! One of the main bacteria that is present in functional foods such as sauerkraut includes Lactobacillus. There is some data to show that these bacteria can degrade certain pesticides and can also provide antioxidant power, make the gut barrier stronger, and reduce inflammation (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26123785). Even if you are already eating organic and non-GMO foods, pesticides are in our environment, parks, and other places. I’ll take an extra dose of detox anytime!
  5. Fermented carrots. This is another personal favorite. Fermenting your own carrots at home is super fun for the kids and the whole family. It is also incredibly healthy and pretty easy to do. All you do is dissolve salt in water and put carrot sticks in the jar and pour the liquid over the carrots. Then cover the jar with an airtight lid until they are ready to be eaten. Just make sure to release any excess pressure in the jar on a daily basis. We all know that carrots are full of Vitamin A, antioxidants, fiber, minerals, and other key nutrients. We can take this awesome food and turn it into a superfood with fermentation! Oh, and remember that it can be fun to mix it up with colorful carrots. It will make eating the carrots more fun for the kids and also give them a variety of other health benefits. For example, purple carrots have more anthocyanin and extra Vitamin A. And don’t leave out the white carrots just because they aren’t colorful; their health benefits come from their fiber content. As always, it’s good to eat the rainbow!

Side dishes and snacks can definitely be healthy and full of nutrients and vitamins. Helping your children (and whole family) build a diverse ecosystem of bacteria within their intestinal tracts can have long-lasting health benefits. Your kids will definitely thank you for this when they get older!

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
July 29, 2018
Category: Microbiome
Tags: @healthygutmd  

What is gut health anyway?

So, what is gut health? Is this just another fad? It seems like everywhere you turn there is some advertisement, article, or post about gut health (this one included!). Many of you may be wondering what the big deal is. Should you even be interested? The answer is an “absolutely, yes!”

Let’s first start off by talking about the gut. What is the gut? Well, the gut refers to our digestive tract. The second you put something in your mouth the process of digestion starts from the enzymes in your mouth to the chewing with your teeth. Digestion progresses as the food is transferred into your food pipe (aka, the esophagus) and then down into your stomach. From there, it will travel through the small intestines (or small bowel) and finally end up in the colon (or large bowel). The final product that is expelled from our rectum is what we fondly refer to as poop. This is an oversimplified explanation of how things travel down; there are a lot of things that happen in between. However, I wanted to at least give everyone an idea of what the different parts of the gut actually are. Did you know that if you were to remove your digestive tract from your body and lay it down on the ground it would be about as long as a doubles tennis court? That’s a lot of ground to cover!

One of the reasons why it is important to be concerned about our gut health (or the health of our digestive tract) is because it is home to one of the most powerful entities in our bodies—the gut microbiome. The microbiome refers to the approximately 100 trillion bacteria, viruses, and fungi that exist together in our digestive tracts. These little bugs are important because they do a whole host of things for us. They can also make us sick if things get out of balance. Protecting the gut microbiome and helping to grow a resilient ecosystem can go a long way in the management of chronic disease.

In those with obesity and fatty liver, we know that there are changes in the inflammation levels in our intestines and changes in gut permeability (or leaky gut). Along with these changes come alterations in the gut microbiome (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29956210). There is also a suggestion that the gut microbiome can affect kidney function and play a role in acute kidney injury (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29961049). Not only does the gut microbiome play a role in metabolism and immunity, it also can influence your risk for heart disease (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29967639). The body of knowledge that we are accumulating regarding the gut microbiome is growing at a rapid pace and we are learning about associations with almost every medical condition, including diabetes, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s disease, autism, ADHD, stress, depression, among many others. Just doing a PubMed (medical literature) search for the “gut microbiome” brings almost 11,000 articles.

We are still trying to figure out how it all works and which microorganisms do what but one of the clear messages is that a diverse and rich microbiome are key. It’s kind of like this….if you are the CEO of a major company, what kind of work force would you want? Would you want a bunch of people who have the same skill set, same educational background, identical cultural backgrounds, and same ideas? Or would you want a bunch of highly talented people that come from a variety of backgrounds, from different schools, different countries, and have their own unique personalities and ideas? I think the answer is obvious, right? So, as the CEO of your body (and your gut microbiome), it is our jobs to make sure that we have a diverse microbiome. This is another way of looking at the term “gut health.”

Here are a few basic tips on building a diverse, resilient gut microbiome:

  1. Eat a variety of (preferably organic, non-GMO) colorful vegetables and fruits, while avoiding processed foods, unhealthy trans-fats, fast foods, and excess sugar.
  2. Avoid toxins. This includes food toxins, environmental toxins (as best as possible), certain medications (if possible), tobacco, and excessive alcohol.
  3. Exercise. Movement on a regular daily basis is good for your gut too!
  4. Sleep. Shoot for 7 hours of sleep per night.
  5. Reduce stress. This is a big one. There is a direct mind-gut connection and stress can definitely weigh heavy on the gut and the gut microbiome.
  6. Social interconnections. Yes, this is definitely part of the program too. Our social connections, friendships, and relationships play a large role in our overall health and how we do, especially when we are sick. This is one of the keys to living a long healthy life. Our gut bugs can definitely feel the love!

I hope this helps clear up some of the confusion about gut health and what it is. At the end of the day, we should remember that gut health is important. It may actually be one of the most important parts of our bodies. We should be responsible CEOs to our gut microbiomes. In turn, they will help us be strong, healthy, and successful in many different ways!

 

 

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
July 23, 2018
Category: Longevity
Tags: @healthygutmd  

Rebalance your health, mind, and family with this one simple concept

Do you ever find yourself exhausted at the end of the week? Sometimes the exhaustion starts in the middle of the week or even sooner. By the time the weekend comes, you just want to do nothing. Before you know it, it’s Monday again and you are going back to work tired, as if the weekend never even happened.

There are a lot of things that go into fatigue and stress. We all need to make sure we eat the right foods, avoid toxins, exercise, sleep enough, and meditate on a regular basis. However, one of the most important and forgotten things we need to do is work on our social connections. You may say, “what are you talking about? I have family. I have friends.” I know. You do. However, what are you doing with them? Are you just going through the mechanics of a relationship or are you truly and genuinely trying to connect with each other? Human being are social creatures. We thrive on our social connections. In fact, there is evidence that our social relationships can increase happiness (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25641486). Having more social connections has also been associated with decreased odds of suicide or attempt (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29349115). It’s not about how many relationships you have either. It is the quality of relationships. You could have one friend and be better off than someone with 100 friends if the quality of that relationship is solid.

What we often do is take these relationships for granted. We think we have them and we enjoy that we have them but at the end of the day, are we cultivating that meaningful relationship on an ongoing basis? One simple concept that my family discovered a few years ago has really helped us reconnect and rebalance: Hygge (pronounced “Hoo-Ga”).

Hygge is a Norwegian and Danish word which refers to a mood of coziness. To me, the word means warmth and love. The origins of the word hygge may even come from the word hug, which further supports the concept of coziness and comfort. Ok, so what does this mean anyway. Well, it can mean whatever you want it to mean for you and your circumstances. That’s my viewpoint. The concept is to create an environment of warmth and coziness for you, your friends, and your family. The weekends are a great time to do this because it can be hard to execute in the hustle and bustle of the work week. Vacations are also a great time to do this, but I definitely would not wait for a vacation to start. There are a few ground rules when it comes to hygge (The Little Book of Hygge by Meik Wiking). I’ve outlined them for you below:

  1. Create a good atmosphere. Dimming the lights helps.
  2. Have presence. Turn off the phones.
  3. Have pleasure. Favorite foods are always helpful.
  4. Treat everyone with equality. It’s more about we rather than me.
  5. Have gratitude. Soak in all the warmth and give thanks for the opportunity to be with your loved ones.
  6. Be harmonious. No need to compete when playing games; everyone is there to have fun.
  7. Make sure you are comfortable. Wear sweatpants, warm fuzzy socks, whatever you feel the coziest in.
  8. No drama. Leave the arguments and debates behind.
  9. Be together. Reminisce on things you have in common or adventures you have been on together.
  10. Be in a safe place like someone’s home. The people you are with are your tribe. Hygge is a place of peace and security.

It’s really not complicated. Hygge can be whatever you want it to be (https://www.visitdenmark.co.uk/en-gb/denmark-hygge). Pick one day out of the week that works for you and your family. Make this your family hygge time. My family likes Friday nights or Saturdays. It doesn’t necessarily have to be a whole day affair. The whole point is to just be present in the moment together and enjoy the company. If you have out of town friends coming over for a visit, have fun with them….have a picnic, go for a bike ride, sit around a campfire and tell stories. Yes, you can still go to Disney World if that is what they are there for, but don’t let the “good stuff” go so easily. Make sure you connect, truly connect. It’s the memories you make when this happen that are the ones that truly stay with you and keep you warm inside. That’s what hygge is! Having a friend and being a friend are two different things. Even having one friend earlier in life, as a child, can offer a reduced risk of psychological problems later in life, as an adult https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25316094).

Here is what we do on our hygge weekends:

  1. No electronics or phones (outside of music). Unplug the TVs. Put away the Iphones and tablets.
  2. Nice meals planned out (home cooked is the best, especially where everyone can contribute to the preparation)
  3. Board games with the kids
  4. Outdoor games with the kids (shoes off is even better so you can get some earthing in!)
  5. Funny stories, lots of jokes, and tons of hugs (of course!)
  6. Candles
  7. Aromatherapy diffuser (rose and orange citrus are a few of our favorites)
  8. No drama

We know, and have seen, in the published literature that there are implications for gene expression and gut microbiome diversity in relation to our social interconnectedness. This means, that just by having fun and enjoying your social connections and relationships, you could be giving yourself a dose of one of the cheapest and most powerful medicines: love. Our human physiology responds to this. Oxytocin probably plays a large role in this process. Oxytocin is a chemical that has many different functions but is often-times referred to as the “love hormone.” Some of the effects it has includes parental behavior, social bonding, falling in love, friendship, and cooperation. The gut microbiome likely plays a role in how oxytocin is released because it appears that Lactobacillus reuteri, one of the bacteria that is found in the gut, can increase blood levels of oxytocin (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27793228). I bet you would never have guessed that happiness could come from the gut!

The Danish are some of the happiest people in the world. They figured this out a long time ago. We can all learn from their example and bring hygge into our lives! The warmth and coziness of hygge will trickle down into the core of your being and deliver a dose of the best medicine to you, your genes, and your microbiome!

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
July 15, 2018
Category: Longevity
Tags: @healthygutmd  

How earthing can heal your gut

What’s all the hype about earthing and grounding? Believe it or not, there is science behind it! So, what is it? Well, grounding and earthing refers to direct skin contact with the surface of the Earth, whether it be with your bare hands or feet. Another concept that is along the same lines as this is called forest bathing. Forest bathing was developed in Japan and is called Shinrin-yoku or “taking in the forest atmosphere.” These techniques are a way to reduce stress and calm the mind. They allow us the opportunity to enjoy the great Earth we all live on together.

Guess what? Earthing actually effects our human physiology and health! Grounding can influence changes in levels of our white blood cells, inflammatory markers, and immune response. It has also been demonstrated to reduce pain and change the number of immune cells floating around in your bloodstream which can then influence the downstream factors related to inflammation (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378297/). One very interesting study showed that grounding caused a reduction in a muscle enzyme called creatinine kinase (CK) after a series of muscle contractions (the people in the study did 200 half-knee bends). This means that grounding helped reduce muscle damage or irritation after these muscular contractions were performed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26443876).

One theory is that earthing can influence the electrical and chemical capabilities of the nervous system. This may help the nervous system to better adapt to the demands of the body and immediate surroundings. It may also help us restore our natural electrical status. These changes can even be seen on tests such as an EEG (electroencephalography) which measures brain wave activity (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21856083). Fascinating, isn’t it?

Forest bathing has been shown to produce changes in our human physiology as well. One study showed that pulse rate, blood pressure, and heart rate variability were better in the forest than in the city when people were asked to walk for 15 minutes and then sit in chairs viewing the areas they walked in for 15 minutes (http://www.natureandforesttherapy.org/uploads/8/1/4/4/8144400/_physiologiceffectsurbanforest.pdf). Another interesting study showed that brain activity and cortisol (a key stress hormone) levels were significantly lower in those that spent time in a forest walking around and enjoying the scenery compared to when this was done in the city (http://www.natureandforesttherapy.org/uploads/8/1/4/4/8144400/_physiological_effects_of_shinrin-yokucortisol-2007.pdf). What is exciting is that these changes are noted in a very short period of time. You don’t have to do it for months before you can see the benefit.

We know that the brain and the gut are directly connected to each other and that the digestive tract has its own nervous system. There are more nerves in the digestive tract than in the spinal cord! It is also well established that the brain can influence activity in the digestive tract and can influence the gut microbiome. Additionally, the opposite is also true. The gut microbiome can also influence brain activity, emotions, feelings, anxiety, and depression. Earthing and forest bathing seem like a genius way to naturally reset and rebalance our human bodies and physiology. Not only can it help us reduce stress, it can influence brain activity, blood pressure, heart rate, and immune activity. Almost certainly, the gut microbiome probably plays a role in this process as well. A happy brain makes for a happy gut. It actually makes a lot of sense if you think about it. Dr. Daniel Siegel defines the “mind” as being within us and between us; our mind is within our body but also between our body and the environment. Therefore, in order to heal our mind and body we must also connect with and respect our environment and everything and everyone in it (http://www.drdansiegel.com/books/mind/).

Regardless of the science or anyone’s opinion, there seems to be enough evidence to support earthing and forest bathing. It is a free, simple, and fun way to not only heal your mind but also heal your gut! So, next time you feel like you need a break or a breather, take off your shoes and walk barefoot in a patch of pesticide-free organic soil! Make it part of your regular routine!

By Dr. Marvin Singh MD
July 08, 2018
Category: Microbiome
Tags: @healthygutmd  

How many times have you heard people talk about good genes and bad genes? Even as a physician, I have had my own physicians tell me that I probably have a higher risk of heart disease because of my family history and genetics. Is this entirely true? Well, yes and no.

We do carry added risk for certain conditions that are inherited in our genes. However, we have the option to exercise control over those genes. Really? We can control our genes? Yes!

Our genes and our DNA are definitely an important part of our health. However, this is not the only factor that we need to consider. Our gastrointestinal tract or digestive tract starts from our mouth and goes all the way to rectum. Within these pipes lies a vast amount of power. There are approximately 100 trillion microorganisms that live inside of our inner pipes (Singh M, Mullin G. Diet and Environmental Chemicals and the Gut Microbiome. In: Vom Saal F, Cohen A, editors. Integrative Environmental Medicine. Oxford University Press. 2017). These can include bacteria, fungi, yeast, and viruses. We affectionately call these guys our gut microbiome. This basically refers to the ecosystem that lives within our gut. Not only are these little bugs responsible for making vitamins for us and helping us digest our food, they help control the immune system since 70% of our immune systems lies within the gut! Even more fascinating is that at least 90% of the serotonin in our bodies is stored in the gut as well. When we think of antidepressants we often think of increasing the amount of serotonin in our brains but this is only partially true. We have a whole pharmacy of antidepressants sitting in our gut. We just have to know how to open the door to get access to all this free medicine!

Our DNA and our gut microbiome work together and are influenced by our environment, exposures, stress levels, and hormones. One of these elements alone is not enough to control or manipulate our health. It is my belief that the human body was designed this way on purpose. Almost like checks and balances within the government. When everything works together nicely, our everyday challenges are dealt with effectively and problems are solved. When a few things start to get out of balance, the entire system can get out of balance. And if we have some underlying risk for a particular condition that is hidden within our DNA blueprint, our body may push the button to activate that condition when we don’t want it to.

Don’t get too worried, just yet! Our health is not that scary. The beauty of the whole system is that even if we have already started to walk down the path of sickness, we can do our best to get off that path. More importantly, we can do things to keep on a path of wellness!

Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn was awarded the Nobel Prize for her groundbreaking work on telomeres, which are the caps at the end of our DNA that help keep the DNA intact (almost like the plastic tips of your shoelaces that help keep the shoelaces from fraying). It turns out that we have an enzyme called telomerase that helps keep these caps intact and can even make them longer. This is important because once the caps get too short and the DNA starts to “fall apart” so to speak, the cell that contains that DNA starts to become senescent or senile and does things that you don’t want it to do such as send false signals that can be confusing to the other cells in your body. When I heard that The Telomere Effect by Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn and Dr. Elissa Epel was coming out I made sure I got a copy because I was very interested to learn about what their research showed regarding how we can live longer and be healthier. Guess what? The very same things I have been educating patients about in my practice about gut health are also important for telomere and DNA health! These include eating a balanced diet full of antioxidants, phytonutrients, colorful vegetables and fruits; exercising; avoiding toxins; reducing stress; sleeping the right amount; and having fun building friendships and relationships with people and the environment. Personalized lifestyle interventions are the cornerstone of optimizing our health (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23878520), not only because they are good for our DNA but because they are good for our gene expression, our gut microbiome, hormone balance, and our environment.

So next time someone tells you that your chronic illness is “all in your genes,” tell them and prove to them that they are not entirely correct. Your genes are not your destiny. We can change our environment (inside of our bodies and outside of our bodies) and harness the power of our beautifully intricate bodies to create positive changes in our health!